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Sunday, 17 August 2014

Third Year Civil Engineering(2013) Question Papers of Pune University



Third Year Civil Engineering(2013) Question Papers of Pune University

Third Year Civil(2013) Question Papers of Pune University  Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.[1][2][3] Civil engineering is the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering,[4] and it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering.[5] It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including architectural engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, geophysics, geodesy, control engineering, structural engineering, earthquake engineering, transportation engineering, earth science, atmospheric sciences, forensic engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, offshore engineering, quantity surveying, coastal engineering,[4] surveying, and construction engineering.[6] Civil engineering takes place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies.
Civil Engg – 5th and 6th Sem. – TE  Previous Year Question Papers of Pune University (PU or Unipune or UoP) – 2013 papers  -   2008 Pattern

Menya Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi mu Rwanda n’ingaruka zayo

Ingabo z'Abanyekongo zatozwaga n'Ababiligi ngo zibarwanirireMenya Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi mu Rwanda n’ingaruka zayo



*Uko intumwa y’abadage yafungiwe i Uvira ikaba imbarutso
*Abadage birukana Ababiligi bagafata ibiyaga byose bya Kivu na Tanganyika
*Intambara yatangiye Resida Richard Kandt ari muri Konje abura uko agaruka yarasigariweho na Captaine Witgens abanyarwanda bitaga Tembasi
*Intambara ikaze ku rugeroro rwa Gisenyi, abadage bubaka indaki ku musozi wa Rubavu
*Intambara zikomeye ku Gisenyi no mu kibaya cya Sebeya, Ababiligi baratsindwa
*Ingabo z’Ababiligi zhindura sitarateji azunguruka ibirunga zitera ziturutse mu Mutara
*Kuwa 06/05/1916 Kigali yarafashwe, Abadage n’Indugaruga zabo bagicungiye ku Gisenyi
*Abadage bahungana n’abanyarwanda benshi kugera za Mozambique bamwe bigumirayo baturayo kuva ubwo.
*Mu ngaruka z’iyi ntambara ku Rwanda harimo icyago cy’inzara ya Rumanurimbaba.
Ingabo z'Abanyekongo zatozwaga n'Ababiligi ngo zibarwanirire
Ingabo z’Abanyekongo zatozwaga n’Ababiligi ngo zibarwanirire
Ubusanzwe tuzi ko Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi yatangiye mu 1914, ikamara imyaka ine (4) kuko yarangiye mu 1918. Hirya no hino kw’Isi, nyuma y’imyaka ijana irangiye, bari kwibuka miliyoni na miliyoni z’Abantu bayiguyemo n’ibintu byayitikiriyemo.  No mu Rwanda iyo ntambara yarahageze, ariko ho yamaze imyaka ibiri gusa kuko yarangiye mu 1916, aribwo Abadage bari bamaze kwirukanwa mu Rwanda n’Ababiligi. Ingaruka zayo  no ku Rwanda zabaye nyinshi cyane.
Iyo ntambara yari yatangiriye i Burayi itangijwe n’Abadage bafatanije n’ibihugu bimwe by’inshuti zabo icyo gihe byari biherereye mu gace k’u Burayi bwo hagati nka Autriche-Hongrie (Austria-Hungary) cyangwa Bosnia Herzegovina (ari naho hakomotse imbarutso y’intambara: igikomangoma cyaho cyitwaga Fran├žois-Ferdinand cyishwe n’akanyeshuri kitwaga Prinzip) hamwe na Bulgaria ndetse n’icyo bitaga Empire Ottoman ariyo yabaye Turkiya y’ubu.
Muri iyo ntambara impande ebyiri zari zishyamiranye ni izi: mu ruhande rumwe hari abo Badage n’inshuti zabo, naho ku rundi hari Ubufaransa, Ububiligi, Ubwongereza n’Ubutaliyani, ndetse haza no kwiyongeraho na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika.
Icyaje gukomera gusa ari nacyo cyatumye ahari iriya ntambara yitwa iy’Isi n’uko yarenze imipaka y’u Burayi igafatira ibindi bice byose by’Isi kubera ko biriya bihugu byari bimaze kwinjira mu ntambara byahereyeko biyijyana no mu zindi nce z’Isi, aho byari bimaze gushinga hirya no hino za Koloni zabyo.
Birumvikana ko iyo ntambara itatinze kugera muri Afurika, aho Abafaransa, Abongereza, Abadage n’Ababiligi bari bafite za Koloni. Cyane cyane twavuga nko mu gace ka Afurika yo hagati n’iy’Iburasirazuba, ariho twasangaga Abadage bari bamaze kwigarurira u Rwanda, u Burundi ndetse na Tanganyika (icyo bitaga Deutsch-Ost-Africa), Abongereza bari muri Kenya na Uganda, naho muri Kongo hari Ababiligi.
Bidatinze rero, ibice bibiri byahereyeko bishyamirana. Uruhande rumwe rwari rugizwe n’Abadage bonyine, ku rundi ruhande hakaba Ababiligi bo muri Kongo bari biteguye gufatanya n’Abongereza igihe cyose bizashoboka kugira ngo barwanirize hamwe Abadage. Kandi ni nako byaje kugenda.
 Mu ntangiriro, nta numwe muri abo Bakoloni wifuzaga ko intambara igera ino
Mu 1914, ubwo intambara yari imaze kurota i Burayi hagati y’u Budage n’u Bufaransa n’u Bubiligi (bwo bwari bumaze no gutsindwa), icyo gihe Abakoloni bari muri Afurika yo hagati, cyane cyane Ababiligi, bari bizeye ko hazakurikizwa (nkuko byari bisanzwe) amasezerano yari yarasinyiwe muri ya nama yabereye i Berlin mu 1885 yashyizeho amabwiriza y’ukuntu Abazungu bagombaga kwigabanya umugabane wa Afurika. Koko rero muri iyo nama Abazungu bari bayirimo bose bari bemeje ko, muri iryo gabangana, bazirinda guteza intambara muri Afurika yo hagati, aho uruzi rwa Kongo rugera hose no mu nkengero zarwo. Ndetse hari abantu bamwe bavuga ko bishoboka kuba ariyo mpamvu yatumye ako gace kose bakegurira umwami w’Ababiligi witwaga Leopold II (nk’ingarigari yigengaho) kuko babonaga ko yari umukuru w’igihugu kidakanganye (= u Bubiligi), kitazashobora kubangamira inyungu z’ibindi bihugu byari iby’amaboko icyo gihe nk’u Bufaransa, u Budage cyangwa uBwongereza.
Indi mpamvu yatumaga abo bazungu batifuza ko intambara yagera muri Africa yo hagati n’uko bose babonaga batariteguye bihagije iby’imirwano, nta bikoresho bihagije bafite, nta n’abasirikare bahagije.
Muri Kongo, bari baratangiye gushyiraho umutwe w’Abapolisi (Force Publique) nawo udafashe wari ushinzwe umutekano cyangwa gucubya imyivumbagatanyo yashoboraga kuvuka hirya no hino. Mu Rwanda naho, Abadage ubwabo bari bakiri bake cyane, ariko kubera ubwumvikane bari bafitanye n’umwami Musinga, yari yarabahaye ingabo bashoboraga gutoza zikabafasha zitwaga “indugaruga”. Abongereza nabo, n’ubwo bendaga kuba benshi muri Kenya na Uganda, urebye nta ngabo nyinshi bari bafite. Gusa bo bizeraga ko habaye ikibazo, bakwitabaza ingabo zivuye mu zindi koloni zabo nka Rhodeziya, Afurika y’epfo cyangwa Hindiya (India).
Ariko iyo umuntu yitegereje neza muri uriya mwaka wa 1914 intambara itangira, abona Abadage basa nk’aho ari bo bendaga kugira ingufu kurusha abandi (cyangwa se barashoboraga kwitegura intambara byihuse) kuberako bari bamaze kubaka inzira ebyiri za gari ya moshi (hari iyo mu majyaruguru hafi y’umupaka na Kenya yageraga Moshi ivuye Tanga ku Nyanja, hakaba kandi n’indi yo hagati yavaga Dar-es-salaam ku Nyanja ikagera i Kigoma kuri Tanganyika yaciye Tabora. Izo nzira zombi rero zashoboraga kubafasha kujyana ibikoresho n’ingabo hirya no hino muri koloni yabo, cyane cyane ku mipaka aho bagombaga guhagarika ari Abongereza bashoboraga kubatera bavuye muri Kenya na Uganda cyangwa se ku mupaka hagati yabo n’Ababiligi ku biyaga bya Tanganyika na Kivu. Kuva intambara yatangira bahereyeko bahashyira ingufu cyane ku buryo biriya biyaga byombi byahereyeko biba nk’ibyabo. Ibyaribyo byose, bari bamaze gushinga za centres z’ubuyobozi zenda kuba nyinshi muri kariya karere k’ibiyaga.
Kuva ku kiyaga cya Tanganyika kugera mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda wahasangaga Usumbura, wazamuka ukagera Cibitoke, hanyuma ukagera Shangugu, hanyuma Shangi, hanyuma Musaho (muri Kibuye), hanyuma ukagera ku Gisenyi (bandikaga Gisseygnies icyo gihe) hari hakomeye cyane, hanyuma hari na Ruhengeri; ubwo rero ukaba wakongera ho na Kigali yari umurwa mukuru, ndetse hari na Gatsibo mu Mutara n’ubwo yari ikiri nto bwose. Aho hose washoboraga kuhasanga Abadage (umwe cyangwa nka babili cyangwa batatu bari kumwe n’ingabo z’indugaruga).
Impamvu ya nyuma tutakwibagirwa, ndetse twavuga ko ariyo nyamukuru yatumaga Abazungu batifuza ko intambara igera mu gace ka Africa yo hagati (kandi ugasanga bari bayihuriyeho bose, ari Abadage, Ababiligi cyangwa Abongereza), nuko bose batashakaga kwereka Abirabura ko Abazungu bashobora kwicana hagati yabo ku buryo ndetse hashobora kuvamo bamwe bagatsindwa. Ikindi kandi bumvaga ko byanze bikunze bakwitabaza Abirabura bashoboraga kwica Abazungu ku rugamba. Ibyo byose babonaga bizatanga urugero rubi rutabura kugira ingaruka nazo mbi.
Nyamara ariko aka wa mugani ngo: “Imikanurire y’urukwavu ntibuza ishyamba gushya”, intambara yaje kubagwa hejuru n’ubwo batayishakaga bwose. Mbese byabaye nka gisida (accident) kuko byakomotse ku matwi y’umuntu wumva nabi. Burya koko ngo impamvu ingana ururo.
Imbarutso y’intambara: ubutumwa bwumviswe nabi
Hagati mu mwaka wa 1914, intambara yari imaze kugera no muri Afurika. Muri icyo gihe, kw’itariki ya 7 y’ukwezi kwa munani niho Abafaransa bo muri Dahomey barashe ku Badage bo muri Togo; ndetse ku munsi ukurikiyeho, kw’itariki ya 8 y’uko kwezi mu 1914, amato y’intambara y’Abongereza arasa ku cyambu cy’Abadage cya Dar es-Salaam no kuri TSF yabo.
Ubwo Abakoloni bo muri Afurika yo hagati (Kongo-Rwanda-Urundi) bumvaga ko ibintu byahindutse, ariko bakibaza niba ya masezerano ya Berlini yo kutabogama (neutrality) no kutajya mu bikorwa by’intambara (- ariya masezerano bo yabarebaga by’umwihariko -) bazakomeza kuyakurikiza cyangwa se niba yarataye agaciro. Aho hagati rero nibwo Abadage bari i Bujumbura (Usumbura) bigiriye inama yo kujya kubaza Ababiligi bo hakurya (Congo) icyo babitekerezaho (n’ubusanzwe abo ku mipaka bajyaga bagenderana rimwe na rimwe mbere y’intambara). Nibwo bohereje rero intumwa ku Babiligi bari bakambitse hakurya aho i Buvira (Uvira) bagira ngo bababaze nabo icyo batekereza kuri icyo kibazo.
Ibiri amambo ariko ni uko ya ntumwa y’Abadage yagezeyo, ibintu bikagenda uko batari babyiteze. Ababirigi ba Uvira bamenyesheje iyo ntumwa y’Abadage ko bo badafite ububasha bwo kuba bafata icyemezo kuri icyo kibazo, ko rero bakeneye kubaza Abayobozi babo bari i Bukavu (icyo gihe yitwaga Constermansville), nabo bakabaza i bukuru i Leopoldville (Kinshasa) noneho bakabona kumuha igisubizo. Ubwo rero bahereyeko basabaga iyo ntumwa kwihangana ngo igume aho mu minsi bazaba bagitegereje igisubizo kivuye i Leopoldville (Kinshasa).
Ikibazo rero nuko muri iyo minsi yo kwihangana, Ababiligi bamufungiye ahantu bamushyiraho n’abarinzi, mbese biba nko kumufunga. Ya ntumwa yaje gushobora gusubira i Bujumbura (Usumbura) ivuga ibyayibayeho, mbese ko aho kubona igisubizo ahubwo yafunzwe. Kuva ubwo icyo gikorwa cy’Ababiligi cyahereyeko gifatwa n’Abadage nk’intangiriro y’intambara (= declaration of war), ntibongera kugira icyo bibaza kuby’amahoro; intambara bayitangira ubwo.
Koko rero bidatinze Abadage bahereyeko batera Ababiligi muri Kongo. Ahangaha ariko nabanza kumenyesha ko, uretse iriya “incident” y’intumwa yatumwe Uvira igafungwa, n’ubusanzwe gahunda yo kuzatera mbere igihe cyose intambara izaba ivutse byari bisanzwe muri “Plan” y’Abadage. Biyumvishaga neza ko bari bagoswe n’abanzi babo impande zose, mu majyaruguru no mu majyepfo hari Abongereza naho i Burengerazuba hari Ababiligi. Ingamba rero (“strategies”) bari barateganije zari izo kubanza gutera ngo begezeyo abanzi, bityo bababuze kwitegura neza mu bihe byambere, nibishoboka ndetse babahashye. Ibyaribyo byose bumvaga ko intambara nitinda bazageraho bakifatanya bakabarusha ubwinshi, kurya bari ibihugu bibiri birwana na kimwe.
Mu mpera z’umwaka wa 1914, Abadage bahereyeko bigarurira ikiyaga cya Tanganyika, barasa Ababiligi i Buvira, ndetse basenya n’icyambu cyabo cya Lukiga (cyari ku mujyi wari kuri Tanganyika igana mu majyepfo witwaga Albertville). Abadage bo mu Rwanda nabo bahereyeko batera kugira ngo bigarurire i Kivu cyose. Bifashishije ubwato bwabo bwari butsitse i Musaho (Kibuye), baherako bafata ikirwa cy’Ijwi cyose, ndetse barazamuka batera kuri Goma barahatwika birukana Ababiligi, barangije bashinga ibirindiro byabo ku Gisenyi (Gisseygnies).
Muri icyo gihe umugaba mukuru w’intambara mu Rwanda yari Captain Wintgens (uwo Abanyarwanda bari barahimbye Tembasi), akaba ubusanzwe yari ahagarariye Richard Kandt wari Resident mukuru, ariko uyu we akaba yari yamaze kujya muri “Konje” i Burayi noneho intambara imusangayo, abura uko agaruka.
Mu mwaka wose wa 1915, Ababiligi bakomeje kugeregeza gutera mu Rwanda no mu Burundi, ariko Abadage bari Usumbura, Shangugu cyane cyane ku Gisenyi bababera ibamba. Umwe mu bagaba b’ingabo zo muri Kongo, Colonel Molitor, yari muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru aho yazanye Abasirikari be benshi abarunda kuri Goma, umugambi we ari uwo gutsinsura Abadage bari ku Gisenyi, kugira ngo ashobore gutera Kigali na Nyanza yirukane burundu Abadage mu Rwanda, kandi yizeraga ko azaherako abona n’inkunga y’Abongereza bavuye muri Uganda.
Nyamara Abadage bari barabitahuye kera, noneho urugerero rwo ku Gisenyi barugira umutamenwa. Captain Wintgens n’abasirikare be baciye “indake” (trenches)ku musozi wa Rubavu ashingamo za canons zose yari afite na za mitrailleuses, izindi azishinga ku Nyundo, hagati aho mu nkengero z’ikibaya cya Sebaya cyose ahakwiza indake z’Abasirikare bafite imbunda zisanzwe, noneho barindira aho, bitegeye ikibaya cyose cya Gisenyi na Goma na Sebeya yose, bareba umwanzi wese wakwambuka ava kuri Goma ko ntaho yabacikira. Byumvikane rero ko intoke zose z’Abagoyi baratemye bavanaho, ndetse n’amazu barasenya kugirango umwezi ugaragare neza. Abagoyi ubwabo, abatarafashwe ngo bajye bagemura ibikoresho n’ibitunga Abasirikare bari bahunze bavanye mo akabo karenge, kuko uwari gutinda aho yari gufatirwa hagati y’amasasu y’Abarwanyi.
Abasirikari b’Ababiligi ba Colonel Molitor, bari bamaze no kuba benshi barusha Abadage n’Abanyarwanda ubwinshi, bagerageje inshuro zirenga eshanu zose gutera ibirindiro by’Abadage ku Gisenyi no mu kibaya cya Sebeya, ariko muri izo nshuro zose Abadage bakabakubita inshuro. Mu mezi y’icumi na cumi na kumwe ku mwaka wa 1915, Ababiligi bagerageje kugaba noneho ibitero bya simusiga bituma noneho Captain Wentgens (Tembasi) nawe ahamagaza inkunga ya bene wabo bari bategerereje ku kiyaga cya Victoriya biteguye gutabara ingabo zabo zari ku rugamba, zimwe ziri Bukoba (mu majyaruguru y’i Karagwe)  aho zarwanaga n’Abongereza cyangwa se izari mu Rwanda kuri Sebeya. Mu gitero cya nyuma cyabaye kuri 21 mu kwezi kwa cumi n’abiri 1915, Ababiligi bazanye za canons zabo zose (enye) n’izindi mbunda zikomeye, Abadage  bongeye kubasubizayo ndetse Ababiligi bahasiga abantu babo 21. Kuva icyo gihe  Colonel Molitor yahereyeko yumva ko atazatsinsura Abadage aciye ku Gisenyi; aherako ahindura “strategy”.
- Colonel Molitor ahindura “strategy” agatera mu Mutara azengurutse i Birunga
Strategy” nshya ya Colonel Molitor yatangije mu ntangiriro z’umwaka wa 1916 niyo yaje kumuhira. Yigiriye inama yo guca inyuma y’ibirunga n’ingabo ze (mu Bufumbira na Kigezi) noneho agatera Abadage aturutse mu Mutara na Ndorwa, akaba aribwo amanuka agana i Kigali. Koko rero niko byagenze. Kugirango abeshye Abadage, kuri Goma yahasize abasirikare bake bo kubahugenza (regiment imwe), abandi bose aberekeza mu Mutara. Bambutse umupaka bitabagoye (- cyane cyane ko hari mu gace k’Abongereza bari muri Uganda -) agakambi k’Abadage k’i Gatsibo agakubita incuri imwe (harimo umudage umwe n’indugaruga 15), akomeza urugendo rwe ku buryo kw’itariki ya 6 y’ukwezi kwa gatanu 1916 yari amaze gufata Kigali.
Abadage ba Tembasi, bahereyeko bumva ko ibintu bimeze nabi cyane kuko bari bamaze kumenya ko Ababiligi babaciye ruhinga inyuma kandi nicyo kintu batinyaga kuva mbere hose kurusha ibindi byose: kwumva ko ababiligi bashobora kubagota bakabafungira inzira y’ubuhungiro noneho bagafatwa mpiri. Ubwo rero bahereyeko bafunga ibyombo byabo byo ku Gisenyi, imbunda zabo n’amasasu bakorera Abagoyi n’abandi bose basangaga mu mayira, bafata inzira igana mu majyepfo. Baciye za Kilinda bakomeza bagana i Nyanza. Aho bahahuriye n’abandi Badage bavuye Shangugu bose bakomezanya urugendo bagana Tabora. Bavuga ko bari kumwe n’Abanyarwanda benshi bajyanye, ari abari indugaruruga (hafi 1 000) n’abandi bari abikorezi gusa. Bamwe bagarukiye za Tabora na Dodoma, abandi bageze na Dar es-Salaam; ngo hari n’abageze muri Mozambike kubera ko Abadage ariyo baciye bagira ngo bazabone uko bazagera muri za Turkiya bagana i Burayi; Muri abo Banyarwanda, abenshi babuze uko bagaruka baherako biturirayo.
Ingaruka z’Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi ku Rwanda ni nyinshi cyane.
Hari abantu bishwe n’intambara ubwayo nyirizina (tutashobora kumenya umubare), ariko hari akaga abaturage bo mu majyaruguru bahuye nako, cyane cyane Abagoyi (bakaraswa, bakirukanwa mu byabo, imyaka yabo n’intoke bigatemwa, bakikorezwa imitwaro ivunanye, n’ibindi n’ibindi…).
Hejuru y’ibyo hakurikiyeho icyago cy’inzara yakomotse kuri iyo ntambara, kibanza kuyogoza Ubugoyi n’Umurera, aribyo, kuva kera kose byari ibigega by’u Rwanda, ibyo bigatuma u Rwanda rwose rubura ibyo kurya, rugwa umwuma, imfu zirenza  urugero. Iyo nzara niyo yaje kwitwa Rumanurimbaba (cyangwa se Rumanura) yamaze imyaka ibiri yose iyogoza u Rwanda, kuva mu 1916 kugeza mu 1917.  (N.B.: Iby’iyi nzara n’uko yagenze twabiharira inyandiko yabyo yihariye iruhande.)
Byakuwe ku
UMUSEKE.RW